Farming of Practices

 

Package of Practices
  okra Hot pepper Sweet pepper Gourds Water melon Cauliflower
Soil Well drained Red sandy or Red loamy or Fertile sandy Fertile sandy Well drained
  heavy soils, well -drained medium black loams and loams soil medium loam
  black and red loamy soils soils are best alluvial soils containing and /or sandy
  are best suited are best suited suited for containing organic organic matter loam soils
  for crop growth for crop growth crop growth matter with with a PH of are suitable.
  more fruiting     a PH of 6-6.5 . 6-6.5 .For  
  branches can be     water logging early production  
  expected in     should be plants should be  
  heavier soils     avoided . planted on  
  compared to       raised beds  
  light soils          
             
climate In Summer and Warm climatic Cool climatic it is a warm season The water melon Optimum
  rainy season regions are best regions are annual optimum is warm season temperature
  growth will suited for the best suited for temperature for annual .optimal for germination
  be more vigorous crop 18-27 ◦C the crop germination will crop growth is 25 -30 ◦ C
  compared to soil temperature 18-27◦ C be 28 -32◦ C if temperature  
  winter season is required for soil temperature   is above 38◦ C .  
  optimum seed germination is required for   Optimum  
  temperature range   seed germination   temperature  
  for good growth       for germination  
  is 25◦ C to       is 28 -32◦ C  
  a high of          
  35 ◦ C          
             
season Varies widely May -June,Nov-. June -july; As per the As per the As per the
  from state Dec oct-Nov regional practices regional pratices regional practices
  to state within     and timings but and timing but and timings
  india .jan     summer season summer season  
  Feb, April to     is preferable is preferable  
  june are the          
  major sowing          
  seasons          
             
seed 2-3 Kgs per 70 gms/acre 60 grams/ Bitter Gourd :600-700 200 -300 grams 100 -120 grams/
  acre depending   acre grams per acre per acre acre
  on the spacing     Ridge Gourd :400-500    
  followed     grams per acre    
        Bottle Gourd :500-600    
        grams per acre    
        Sponge Gourd: 400    
        500grams per acre    
             
spacing In light soils, 80 cm between 80 cm between 180 cm x60 cm 180 cm x 60 cm Row to row :
  80 cm between rows and 40 cm rows and for ground system   60 cm,plant
  rows and 32 cm between plants 40 cm between 150 cm x 60 cm   to plant :45 cm
  between plants   plants for staking    
  is good .A spacing     staking should be    
  of 100 cm between     done 25-30    
  rows and 40 45 cm     days after sowing    
  between plants is          
  recommended in          
  heavier soils          
             
Transplanting --- ----- ------ ------ ----- 25 -30 days
            after sowing
             
Preparation
of Main Field
---- ------ ----- ------ ------ Add FYM 7-8
          tons per acre
            followed by
            harrowing to
            mix in the
            soil thoroughly
            Open the ridges
            and furrows at
            required spacing
            Apply basal dose
            of chemical
            fertilizer before
            transplanting
            irrigate the
            field one
            day before
            transplanting .
            make a hole
            at a required
            spacing to plant
            seedling .
            Transplanting .
            should be
            done late
            afternoon,after
            transplanting .
            light irrigation
            should be
            given for better
            and quick
            establishment
             
Nursery ---- Seedlings can Seeding can be ----- ----- ------
    be raised either raised either      
    on seedbeds on seeds      
    or in trays. beds or in      
    Tray sowing is trays.tray      
    best to have sowing is best      
    well rooted to have well      
    disease free rooted disease      
    seedlings free seedings      
             
Manures and
Fertilisers
FYM-10 tons per FYM :10 tons / FYM :10 tons / FYM :10 -12 tons / FYM :10 -12 tons / Fertilizer
acre.other orgnic acre acre acre acre , application varies
  sources can also NPK : 60-30 -30 NPK : 60-30 -30 NPK : 32-20 -30 NPK : 40:36 :30 with soil fertility
  be used Kg /acre . Kg /acre . Kg /acre . Kg /acre Frist dose 50 :50
  100 Kgs of DAP with The fertilizers The fertilizers Basal dose :12 Basal dose :33 60 NPK Kg/acre
  65 kgs of MOP should be given should be given grams DAP and grams DAP 6-8 days after
  can be used as in split doses in split doses 7 grams MOP and 7 grams MOP transplanting
  basal dose so that nutrients so that nutrients per plant per plant Second dose 25 :50
  application per acre will be available will be available 1 st top dressing : 1 st top dressing : 60 NPK Kg/acre
  Frist top dressing for the entire for the entire 20 days after 20 days after 20-25 days after
  has to be done crop growth crop growth sowing :15 grams sowing : 15 grams frist
  with 50 Kgs of period Basal period Basal Urea and 5 grams Urea and 5 grams application
  Urea along with dose -NPK 20-30-20 dose -NPK 20-30-20 MOP per plant MOP per plant Third application
  50 Kgs of MOP Kg /acre . Kg /acre . 2 nd top dressing : 2 nd top dressing : 25:00:00 NPK
  When the plants Frist Top dressing Frist Top dressing 45 days after 45 days after Kg/acre
  are 30 days old NPK-20-0-10 Kg / NPK-20-0-10 Kg / sowing :10 grams sowing : 10 grams 20-25 days after
  in the main field acre,second Top acre,second Top Urea and 5 grams Urea and 5 grams second
  and this can be dressing -NPK-20-0-0 NPK-20-0-0 NPK-20-0-0 MOP per plant MOP per plant application
  repeated when dressing Kg /acre . Kg /acre .     Boron &
  the plant reach         Molybdenum
  50 days after         should be
  planting .one more         sprayed at
  top dressing is         curd initiation
  recommended         stage
  in low fertile          
  areas depending          
  on the plant growth          
  status . A micro          
  nutrient spray is          
  recommended          
  at the time of          
  flowering          
             
Blanching ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- To avoid
            discoloring
            and yellowing
            cover the curd
            by tying the
            leaves around
            on the curd
             
Irrigation once in 3-4 Frequency of The Frequency water supply The water melon  
  days in light irrigation depends depends on is critical during is comprised  
  soils and 6-7 on soil type, the soil type, the growth and of 90% water ,  
  days in heavy usually 3-4 usually 3-4 days development of therefore,water  
  soils days interval is interval is plant but absolutely supply is critical  
    preferred preferred. Drip critical during during the growth  
    Drip irrigation irrigation gives flowering and and development  
    gives best results best results fruit bearing of plant and fruit.  
    when compared whan compared stage Supplying water  
    to flood irrigation to flood irrigation.   throughout the  
      Crop is susceptible   growth of the  
      to water logging   plant is important  
      and water stress   but absolutely  
      conditions   critical during  
          flowering and  
          development  
          of the fruit  
             
Intercultural
operations
---- Keep land free keep land free ---- ---- -----
  from weeds , from weeds.      
    earthing up Earthing up      
    given after top should be done      
    dressing to keep after top dressing      
    soil loosened to keep soil      
    during the crop loosened during      
    growth period the crop growth      
      period .The      
      plants can be      
      staked properly      
      in order to      
      prevent loding      
      and also the      
      initials buds      
      can be pinched      
      off so that the      
      stem girth      
      can increase      
      and also the      
      fruit size improves      
             
Traning ----- ----- ----- ----- Water melon vines -----
          need to be turned  
          or adjusted to  
          keep the runners  
          in the proper  
          direction .this  
          allows for clean  
          furrows for  
          movement and  
          cultivation  
          between plants  
          without damaging  
          the vines  
             
purning --- ---- ----- ------- watermelon plants -----
          needs to be  
          pruned of  
          excess fruit to  
          allow correct  
          number of fruits  
          to properly  
          develop and obtain  
          marketable size,  
          at two stages  
          1 .During the frist  
          pruning remove  
          all unmarketable  
          fruits  
          2 .Remove late  
          set fruit in  
          order to increase  
          the size of the  
          remaining fruits  
          per vine  
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